The Treasury of Lives

Jacob Dalton is Assistant Professor of Tibetan Buddhist Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.

Published June 2014

Updated June 2015


Bischoff, F. A. 1978. "Padmasambhava est-il un personnage historique?" In Proceedings of the Csoma de Koros Symposium, pp. 27-33. Louis Ligeti, ed. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.

Bischoff, F. A., and Charles Hartman. 1971. "Padmasambhava's Invention of the Phur-bu: Ms. Pelliot Tibetain 44." In Etudes tibetaines dediees a la memoire de Marcelle Lalou, pp. 11-27. Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve.

Blondeau, A.M. 1980. "Analysis of the biographies of Padmasambhava according to Tibetan tradition: classification of sources." In Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, pp. 45-52. Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi, eds. Warminster: Aris and Philips.

Cantwell, Cathy and Robert Mayer. 2012. A Noble Noose of Methods: The Lotus Garland Synopsis: A Mahāyoga Tantra and its Commentary. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Cantwell, Cathy and Robert Mayer. 2013. “Representations of Padmasambhava in Early Post-Imperial Tibet.” In Tibet after Empire: Culture, Society and Religion between 850-1000, pp. 19-50. Lumbini, Nepal: Lumbini International Research Institute.

Dalton, Jacob. 2004. "The Early Development of the Padmasambhava Legend in Tibet: A Study of IOL Tib J 644 and Pelliot tibétain 307."Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 759-772.

Hirshberg, Daniel A. 2012. Delivering the Lotus-Born: Historiography in the Tibetan Renaissance. Harvard University: Unpublished PhD thesis.

Karmay, Samten. 1988. The Great Perfection. Leiden: Brill, pp. 137-138.

Tsogyal, Yeshe. 1999. The Lotus-Born: The Life Story of Padmasambhava. Translated by Erik Pema Kunsang. Boston: Shambala Publications.

Tsogyal, Yeshe. 1978. The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava. Translated into French by Gustav-Charles Toussaint; translated into English by Kenneth Douglas and Gwendolyn Bays. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing.

Wangdu, Pasang and Hildegard Diemberger. 2000. dBa' bzhed: The Royal Narrative concerning the bringing of the Buddha's Doctrine to Tibet. Vienna: Verlag der Österrichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Zangpo, Ngawang. 2002. Guru Rinpoché: His Life and Times. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.

A list of Tibetan biographies of Padmasambhava on TBRC is here.